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tpe Copie.abw

À propos

Type de fichier
Fichier ABW de 11.7 Mo (application/xml)
Confidentialité
Fichier public, envoyé le 19 février 2014 à 23:14, depuis l'adresse IP 78.235.x.x (France)
Sécurité
Ne contient aucun Virus ou Malware connus - Dernière vérification: 03/06/19
Statistiques
La présente page de téléchargement a été vue 375 fois depuis l'envoi du fichier
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Aperçu du fichier


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE abiword PUBLIC "-//ABISOURCE//DTD AWML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.abisource.com/awml.dtd">
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<metadata>
<m key="dc.format">application/x-abiword</m>
<m key="abiword.generator">AbiWord</m>
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<s type="P" name="Normal" followedby="Current Settings" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0pt; color:000000; margin-left:0pt; text-align:left; widows:2; font-style:normal; text-indent:0in; text-position:normal; font-variant:normal; bgcolor:transparent; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; margin-right:0pt; font-size:12pt; font-stretch:normal"/>
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<p style="Normal" xid="103" props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; text-align:center; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:36pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">L’Evolution de la représentation de l'Univers.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:36pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
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<p style="Default" xid="169" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="721" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; margin-bottom:0.0000in; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; color:000000; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Introduction </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c></p>
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<p style="Default" xid="4" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="167" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">		</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Bien avant notre ère,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">les philosophes et astronomes ont cherché a trouver des réponses sur comment était fait à l’échelle macroscopique l'univers dans lequel on vit.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">On cherchait à savoir cela afin de pouvoir prédire les saisons ainsi que tout les événement les accompagnant.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ils ont commencé à savoir si la terre était ronde ou plate,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">si le monde a ses limites,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le mouvement des planètes.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Jusqu'à, aujourd'hui,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:20pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">les réponses étaient assez ambiguës et variées du fait que leurs outils et leurs connaissances n'étaient pas aussi poussées qu'aujourd'hui.</c></p>
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<p style="Default" xid="173" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Les</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">1ères représentation de l'univers:</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="7" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="8" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">		</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Les</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">1eres cosmogonies datent des</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">1ers scribes,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">donc le IIIème millénaire avant notre ère sous forme de mythe qui n'étaient qu'en ces temps-là que de simples hypothèses,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">cependant le</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> «</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">mythe </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> » </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">n'était pas défini tel qu'il l'est aujourd'hui,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ce n'était ni une fiction,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ni l'inverse du réel mais l'expression des réalités,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">c'est à dire qu'on cherche à comment un événement se passe </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> ; </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ces mythes leurs paraissaient aussi vrai que la représentation de l'univers de nos jours.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Tout cela pour dire que la représentation de l'univers n'était basé que sur des théories,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">des croyances...</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="9" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="10" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Dans les</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">1ers mythes,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">on y trouve souvent pour cause les dieux,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">en voici quelques exemples </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="11" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="12" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le mythe akkadien </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">(</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Mésopotamie,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> ~ </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">3500</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">av.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">J.-C.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">)</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="13" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="14" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	Tiamat fut troublé dans son sommeil profond et voulu remettre de l’ordre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il se batta contre un autre dieu,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Mardouk</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le plus sage des dieux</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">)</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Mardouk,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">qui s’aida du vent pour contrer et détruire Tiamat,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">sorti vainqueur de ce combat.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">A partir de Tiamat défiguré</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">il voulut faire une œuvre d’art et créa,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">en le démembrant,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la Terre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le Ciel,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">etc</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="15" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="16" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le mythe sumérien </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">(</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Mésopotamie </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">~ </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">3500</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">av.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">J.-C.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">)</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="17" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="18" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	Leur cosmogonie apparaît en même temps que celle des Akkadiens car ils sont voisins.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Enlil</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le dieu tout puissant</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">sépara la Terre et le Ciel qui ne formait qu’un.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Enki</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">un dieu architecte</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">alla sur la Terre pour créer les êtres vivants.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="19" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="20" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le mythe égyptien</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Héliopolis </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> ~ </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">2500</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">av.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">J.-C.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">)</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="21" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="22" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	Rê</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le dieu Soleil,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">dieu tout puissant</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">créa le monde à partir d’un magma</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le Noun.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il crea,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">par crachat,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Shou</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">l’atmosphère</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">qui soutient Nout</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le Ciel et la voûte céleste</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et Geb</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la Terre</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">est à ses pieds.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Terre est plate,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">divisée,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">par le Nil,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">en deux parties de même taille.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Lune et le Soleil sont transportés,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">lors de leur traversée du Ciel,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">en barque.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="23" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">		</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">On notera aussi qu'en</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">3000</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">avant notre ère,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">les égyptiens étaient avancés sur les croyances de leurs époques puisqu'ils ont réussit à établir la durée d'une année,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ils avaient trouvé</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">365</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">jours </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> ; </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ce résultat est dû a une longue étude d'une étoile appelée Sirius</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">celle qui brille le plus,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">or mis le soleil</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">)</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">.Ils notèrent le jour où elle apparaissait au-dessus de l’horizon,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">juste avant le lever du Soleil</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Les jours précédents,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elle était donc invisible car elle se levait en même temps que le Soleil ou lorsqu’il faisait déjà jour</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">)</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ensuite,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ils comptèrent les jours jusqu’à ce que cet événement se reproduise.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ce jour</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">,correspond à la crue du Nil,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">donc cette découverte a été bénéfique pour les agriculteurs,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">puisqu’elle rendait</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="24" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">possible la prévision de cet événement essentiel.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="25" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="26" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le mythe grec d’Hésiode</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> (~ </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">700</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">av.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">J.-C.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">)</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="27" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="28" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	De l’Abîme</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> naquit</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> la Terre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">monde promis aux hommes.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Puis,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">de l’Abîme toujours naquit Érèbe et la Nuit.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Terre mit au monde un être égal à elle-même,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le Ciel étoilé,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">qui la couvre complètement et serait un lieu sûr pour tous les dieux.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Terre mit également au monde d’énormes montagnes ainsi que la mer.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ensuite,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">avec le Ciel,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ils enfantèrent les océans et de nombreux Dieux.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="29" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><image dataid="9bdc51a0-9980-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="287" props="height:6.7500in; width:4.4917in"/></p>
<p style="Default" xid="281" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center">(Hésiode)<c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="282" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="283" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="284" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="293" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">D'autres cosmogonies encore étaient imaginées,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">comme dans chaque cosmogonie les dieux diffèrent,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elles ne sont jamais pareils et donc on ne peut voir aucune évolution,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">seulement différentes représentations de l'univers..</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="288" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.0000in; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Ainsi après avoir imaginé tant de représentation faisant référence aux dieux,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">on a donc cherché sous différents angles </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">les présocratiques,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">eux,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">se posent la question sous un angle plus philosophique,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">mettant l'aspect mythologique de côté pour laissé place à un raisonnement rationnelle mais les dieux restent encore présents dans leurs raisonnements.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Ils décrivent l'univers defaçon géométrique.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="292" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.0000in; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; font-size:14pt">Les Présocratiques et les pythagoriciens :</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline; lang:fr-FR; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="291" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.0000in; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	Plusieurs présocratiques et pythagoriciens célèbres ont été les auteurs de certains systèmes de la représentation de l'Univers.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="294" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.0000in; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="34" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left">Les images de cette partie provienne du site : http://users.win.be/ws109220/profs/astro/<c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="323" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="324" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="295" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="39" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le système de Thalès de Milet</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="325" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="41" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="42" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Thalès était un savant,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">pour faire son système il lui fallut reprendre les conceptions astronomiques des Babyloniens</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la terre est une sorte de galette flottant sur l'eau de l'océan qui l'entoure.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Le ciel est une voûte et les astres sont des sortes de gobelets de feu,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">  </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">fixés sur cette voûte.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Thalès ajouta à cette théorie l'explication des phases de la lune par des lois mécaniques</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">  </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">le gobelet de feu qu'est la Lune pivote progressivement sur son axe de telle sorte qu'il montre aux hommes les aspects que la Lune peut prendre dans son évolution mensuelle.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Selon Thalès,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">l'eau est à la base de tout</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elle constitue les mers et océans,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et en s'évaporant,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elle donne de l'air,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et en se déposant,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elle donne de la terre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">L'Eau est au commencement de l'univers.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="43" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="44" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="45" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="46" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="47" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="48" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><image dataid="3b87cd38-9981-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="322" props="height:3.0750in; width:4.1479in"/></p>
<p style="Default" xid="298" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="299" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="300" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="301" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="302" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="303" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="326" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="327" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:18pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le système d'Anaximandre</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:18pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:18pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">:</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="49" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="50" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il était un élève de Thalès ainsi qu'un ami.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il va faire son propre système de l'univers marquand un grand changement par rapport à celui de son maitre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Thalès.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="51" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Terre ne repose plus sur l'eau,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">ni sur quoique ce soit,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">elle gît isolée dans l'espace.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Le ciel c'est plus une coupole,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">c'est une sphère complète.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Située en son centre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la Terre n'a pas plus de raisons de</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> «</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">tomber</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">» </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">vers le bas que vers le haut,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">vers la droite que vers la gauche.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Elle reste donc immobile,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">sans aucun support,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">au centre de l'Univers.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="52" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Anaximandre donne à cette Terre la forme d'un cylindre trois fois plus large que haut.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Méditerranée s'étend toujours au milieu de l'une des faces planes du cylindre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Toutefois,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Anaximandre n'écarte pas l'idée que des hommes puissent vivre sur l'autre face du cylindre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">avec les pieds tournés vers les nôtres,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">d'où le nom d</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">'"</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">antipodes</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">" </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">qu'il leur donne.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="53" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Les astres décrivent autour de la Terre des cercles complets.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Anaximandre explique ce mouvement en imaginant d'immenses roues,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">remplies d'un feu que l'on aperçoit à travers un ou plusieurs trous de leurs parois.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il y a ainsi une roue du Soleil,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">percée d'un trou aussi grand que la Terre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">une roue de la Lune,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">remplie d'un feu moins intense,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et dont le trou s'ouvre et se ferme périodiquement</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et une roue des étoiles,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">percée.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ces roues ont des diamètres différents,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et considérables.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Alors qu'auparavant on imaginait le Soleil comme un feu pas plus grand qu'une maison,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">il est à présent représenté aussi grand que la Terre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="328" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="54" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="59" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="60" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="331" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="332" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="333" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="334" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><image dataid="cbf55a16-9981-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="340" props="height:2.2875in; width:4.3125in"/></p>
<p style="Default" xid="335" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="336" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="337" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="338" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="339" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Le système de pythagore et son école</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="61" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="62" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	Il n'y a pas de livres connus de Pythagore mais son œuvre est divulguée par les écrits de ses disciples</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> (</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">École de Pythagore</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">) </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">et par la transmission orale.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Pour Pythagore,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">tout est nombre.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="63" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">"Les nombres sont pour ainsi dire le principe,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la source et la racine de toutes choses.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">" </c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="64" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	En astronomie,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">les pythagoriciens sont les premiers à considérer la Terre comme une sphère en révolution,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">avec d'autres planètes,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">autour d'un feu central.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="65" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Parménide,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">élève de Pythagore,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">décrit en</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">-490</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">un modèle de l'Univers,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">modèle créé par les pythagoriciens.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Ils reprennent l'aspect spérique du ciel,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">en y ajoutant celle de la Terre et des astres.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="83" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">La Terre ne peut en effet,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">selon les pythagoriciens,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">qu'avoir une forme parfaite.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Cette idée de la rotondité de la Terre est confirmée par des observations</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la coque d'un bateau qui s'éloigne disparaît avant les mâts.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="67" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="68" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Jusqu'ici,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">la lumière et l'obscurité étaient perçues comme deux sortes de brumes,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">l'une claire et l'autre sombre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Parménide affirme que la lumière vient du soleil et qu'elle se déplace.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">L'obscurité est l'absence de lumière.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">Il livre ainsi une première explication du cycle de la Lune</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">celle-ci est une boule qui brille seulement là où le Soleil l'éclaire.</c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="341" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="69" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
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<p style="Default" xid="71" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="72" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
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<p style="Default" xid="344" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="345" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; color:000000; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><image dataid="0c5be3fe-9982-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" xid="354" props="height:3.0688in; width:3.1354in"/></p>
<p style="Default" xid="346" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="347" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="348" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="349" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="350" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="351" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="352" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Système de philolaos</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"> </c></p>
<p style="Default" xid="74" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; lang:fr-FR; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:12pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="75" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">Il était l’élève de Pythagore,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal">  </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">et fut le premier à affirmer que la Terre n’était pas au centre de l’univers mais qu’elle tournait,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">comme tous les autres astres,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">autour d’un feu central.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">Ses explications n'étaient pas vraiment rationelle mais plus dans une idée mystique.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">Selon son système,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">au centre de l'univers il y'avait un feu central différent du soleil</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal">; </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">autour de lui il y'avait une planète qui tournait autour</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">l'Anti-Terre,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">et la terre qui fesait le tour du feu central en un jour de</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">24</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">heures,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">mais la Terre tournait de façon à ce que le monde méditerranéen ne voit pas le feu central et donc personne ne pouvait voir le feu central,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">ainsi que l'Anti-Terre.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">Quant au soleil,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">lui,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">était un mirroir qui n'avait que pour seul fonction rélféchir la lumière du feu central,</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal">et tournait sur lui-même en une année.</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"> </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="82" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c><c props="font-size:14pt">Selon Philolaos, il existait dix corps célestes. Il y’avait aussi les Étoiles, qui n’étaient que des points lumineux. Le choix de dix corps célestes était indispensable car il correspondait à un nombre essentiel pour les Pythagoriciens. La présence d’un Feu central et de l’Anti-Terre n’avait que pour seule raison: atteindre ce chiffre. Ils étaient aussi sensés intervenir dans le mécanisme des éclipses.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="87" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt">La nouveauté de la conception de Philolaos résidait dans le fait que dans son système, la Terre n’était plus au centre de l’Univers et qu’elle tournait sur elle-même en un jour, mouvement indispensable pour expliquer le déplacement apparent des Etoiles autour du pôle.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="88" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="91" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:normal"></c><image dataid="4747d1d8-9970-11e3-8981-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="720" props="height:2.6604in; width:2.9889in"/></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="92" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="357" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="358" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="359" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic">Théorie de Platon :</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline; color:000000; font-size:16pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; dir-override:ltr; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="93" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal">	<c props="font-size:14pt">Platon, célèbre philosophe, élève de Socrate et maître d'Aristote, vécut de -428 à -347. Il refuse le système de Philolaos et se base sur celui des pythagoriciens, à savoir que la Terre est ronde, et est immobile au centre de l'Univers. Afin d'expliquer le mouvement apparent des planètes dans le ciel, il avance qu'elles sont placées dans des sphères concentriques, qui se meuvent les unes par rapport aux autres autour de la Terre. La sphère extérieure, celle qui contient les étoiles, est la seule à être immobile. L'absence de mouvement apparent favorisait cette thèse.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="96" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="99" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="100" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c><image dataid="bb7b0974-9972-11e3-8981-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="378" props="height:2.67in; width:2.80in"/></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="362" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="363" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:none; font-style:normal">	</c><c props="text-decoration:none; font-style:normal"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="379" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="font-weight:normal; text-decoration:none; font-size:16pt; font-style:normal"></c><c props="text-decoration:none; font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt; font-style:normal">Grâce à Platon, une nouvelle conception de l’univers va voir le jour :</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="382" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="text-decoration:none; font-weight:normal; font-size:14pt; font-style:normal"></c><c props="font-weight:normal; text-decoration:underline; font-size:20pt; font-style:normal"> le géocentrisme.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="364" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="365" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="366" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="367" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="368" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="369" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="370" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="371" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="385" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:20pt; font-style:italic"></c><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:20pt; font-style:italic">La Naissance du Géocentrisme</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="384" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:20pt; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="383" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="105" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:16pt; font-style:italic">Théorie d’Aristote :</c><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:16pt; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="106" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="text-decoration:none; font-style:normal"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="107" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">Philosophe et naturaliste, Aristote a écrit des traités scientifiques et certaines de ses observations, notamment en biologie, sont d’une justesse irréprochable et nous montrent un sens logique remarquable. Aristote, en -350, dans son ouvrage De la Physique, a fixé la description du monde, qui avait déjà été suggérée par les écoles les plus anciennes (Les Pythagoriciens). Il se base sur le système de Platon. Ce qui est le plus marquant dans la représentation du monde d’Aristote, c'est la nette distinction qu'il fait entre le monde de la Terre et celui du Ciel. Ceci est la trace de la croyance ancienne selon laquelle le ciel est le domaine des Dieux et la Terre celui des Hommes.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="108" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="109" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">Aristote nomme le monde terrestre : monde sub-lunaire et le monde céleste : monde supra-lunaire ou Cosmos. La Lune apparaît donc comme une frontière entre ces deux mondes. En effet, elle change de forme constamment, contrairement aux autres corps célestes. Ce qui distingue les deux mondes, c’est leur degré de perfection : le monde terrestre est imparfait et le monde céleste parfait. Dans le monde terrestre, tout est soumis à un perpétuel changement : naissance altération, évolution, mort. Au contraire, dans le monde céleste, il n’y a pas de changements. Les corps célestes se meuvent toujours de la même manière. Ils ne naissent ni ne meurent. Cette idée de ces mondes est un grand pas vers la compréhension, puisqu'elle permet d'expliquer un grand nombre de faits observés. Selon Aristote, ces deux mondes sont soumis à des lois totalement différentes.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="110" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left">	<c></c><c props="font-size:14pt">Le monde sub-lunaire ou monde terrestre, composé de quatre éléments : la Terre, l'Eau, l'Air et le Feu. À l’origine, la Terre était au centre, puis se trouvaient l'Eau, l'Air et enfin le Feu, le plus à l'extérieur. Mais ces éléments se sont mélangés, et tous les corps terrestres ne sont qu’une combinaison de ces éléments primaires. Ces éléments déterminent également la manière dont les corps terrestres vont bouger.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="114" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"> <c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="115" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="116" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="380" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="399" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-style:italic"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="386" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:16pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR">Les 4 éléments primaires et leur répartition dans le monde terrestre :</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:16pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline ; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:fr-FR"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">	</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="388" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="389" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:12pt; color:000000; text-decoration:none; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="387" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">	L'observation d’Aristote montre que, dans le monde terrestre, les différents corps obéissent à des mouvements qui s'effectuent en ligne droite. Ainsi, les corps lourds, tels une pierre, tombent. Les corps légers, comme la fumée, montent. Il explique ceci par le fait que chaque élément essaie de retourner à sa sphère d’origine. Par exemple, une pierre, qui est d'essence terrestre tombe, car elle retourne à sa sphère d'origine qui est la Terre. Cette théorie explique également le sens d'écoulement des fleuves (de la montagne à la mer) : l'eau retourne à sa sphère d'origine, qui est juste au-dessus de la Terre, formant la mer et les océans. De la même manière, ce système permet d’expliquer l’origine de ces flammes dans le ciel, que l’on identifie aujourd’hui à des météorites : pour retourner dans sa sphère d’origine qui est la plus à l’extérieur, le feu, piégé sur Terre, est ainsi obligé de traverser l’air et crée alors ces flammes dans le ciel, qui donc pour nous des météorites. La terre se retrouve donc au centre de l'univers : c'est la première des sphères, la plus lourde, donc celle qui est à l'origine géométrique du monde.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="118" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt">Aristote tente également d'expliquer l'effet d'accélération des corps : ces derniers (les pierres en chute libre, la fumée qui monte etc.) accélèrent leur mouvement quand ils s'approchent de leur sphère d'origine, tout comme un cheval qui s'approche de son écurie a tendance à accélérer le pas parce qu'il revient chez lui. C'est là pour Aristote la raison de l'accélération des corps en chute, ou en ascension libre.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="409" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="119" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:0pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">	Enfin, le savant énonce un premier principe de dynamique, fondé sur l'observation, qui est cependant faux, et que Galilée reformulera correctement : pour expliquer la vitesse acquise par un corps que l'on tire ou que l'on pousse, on dira que cette vitesse est proportionnelle à la force qu'on lui applique (V = k.F) : une charrue va deux fois plus vite si on la tire deux fois plus fort, de plus, la charrue ou la pierre, s'arrête si on ne la pousse plus. On sait, depuis Galilée, qu'Aristote n'avait pas considéré les forces de frottements, ce qui explique cette loi erronée qui peut sembler correcte.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="408" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:0pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="128" props="font-family:Times New Roman; dom-dir:ltr; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; lang:fr-FR; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; margin-top:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; line-height:0pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">	Le monde supra-lunaire, s'oppose au monde précédent, complexe et perturbé. C'est un monde parfait et immuable. Ses constituants sont la Lune, le Soleil, les planètes et les Étoiles. Ils sont, chacun, placés sur des sphères concentriques, au nombre de huit. Les sphères sont des coquilles sphériques, appelées orbes , qui retiennent les planètes. Elles tournent autour de la Terre en un mouvement circulaire uniforme. Les Grecs, en effet, ne connaissaient pas encore la gravitation et ce phénomène fut donc remplacé par ces sphères. Les objets les plus proches de la Terre (la Lune et le Soleil) tournent le plus rapidement. Les plus éloignés (les étoiles fixes), sont les plus idéaux, les plus parfaits, ils sont à l'origine de tous mouvements, et ne se déplacent pas. La Terre est au centre, puis viennent la Lune, Mercure, Vénus, le Soleil, Mars, Jupiter et Saturne.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="122" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="123" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"> 	Le système d’Aristote propose donc une explication cohérente, pour l’époque, du monde. Cependant, il se heurte pourtant à quelques problèmes et laisse paraître des incohérences par rapport aux observations. Ainsi, les planètes se déplacent à des distances qui ne changent pas de la Terre. Or, l'observation des mouvements planétaires montre que leur trajectoire dans le ciel n’est pas si parfaite. Elles semblent revenir en arrière pendant quelques jours, puis ensuite reprendre leur course en suivant leur trajectoire en cercle.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="126" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="127" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">La description du monde d'Aristote est fondamentalement intuitive à l'inverse de la science moderne. Il a fallu attendre Galilée (XVIIe siècle), soit près de 2000 ans, pour remettre en cause ce système de manière sérieuse. Mais si cette description du monde a pu s'imposer pendant une si longue période, c'est qu’elle a aussi bénéficié de la description précise du mouvement des astres, faite par Ptolémée, dans son Almageste. Se basant sur la description d'Aristote, Ptolémée propose un système cohérent et rigoureux du mouvement des Astres. L'ensemble de ces deux théories forme un tout cohérent qui, pendant près de 1700 ans, a décrit de manière satisfaisante (au vu de l'état des connaissances) le monde.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="447" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="536" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center"><c></c><image dataid="688c68c2-9984-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="451" props="height:4.01in; width:4.69in"/></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="452" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:center">Modèle d’Aristote et de Ptolémée<c></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="454" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:justify"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:16pt; font-style:italic"></c><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-size:16pt; font-style:italic">Théorie de Ptolémée :</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="131" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0.0833in; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-align:left"><c props="text-decoration:none; font-style:normal">	</c><c props="text-decoration:none; font-style:normal"></c><c props="font-size:14pt">Claude Ptolémée (90-168) fut un grand astronome et mathématicien grec. Le titre original de sa grande oeuvre d'astronomie dans laquelle il crée et développe son système est «Synthèse Astronomique» plus connut sous le nom de L’Almageste, traduction française.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="132" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt">Dans celle-ci, il explique le mouvement rétrograde de certaines planètes lorsqu’on les observe(cf: schéma sur le mouvement apparent de Mars faite en 1984). Ptolémée a développé un système ingénieux basé sur une combinaison de mouvements circulaires pour rendre compte des observations de son temps. Il a utilisé la théorie des épicycles(schéma1), créée trois siècles auparavant par Hipparque; mais il a aussi introduit d'autres nouveautés pour adapter au mieux le modèle d'Aristote aux observations, comme le cercle excentrique(schéma2) et le point </c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">équant(schéma3).</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="467" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="134" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt">	La théorie des épicycles : Comme on le savait déjà à l'époque de Ptolémée, les planètes dans le ciel, ont un effet de retour en arrière : elles semblent revenir en arrière pendant quelques jours, puis ensuite reprendre leur course en suivant leur trajectoire en cercle. On le comprend facilement aujourd'hui : c'est un effet dû au mouvement relatif de la planète par rapport à la Terre, c’est enfait un effet géométrique.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="466" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="140" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-align:left; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:5.000000pt+; text-position:normal"><c props="font-size:14pt">	Le cercle excentrique : Les planètes suivent un cercle, mais ce cercle, n'est pas centré sur la Terre. Les planètes se déplacent à vitesse constante mais comme elles suivent ce cercle excentrique, sa distance à la Terre change constamment. Il apparaît donc qu'elles se déplacent plus rapidement lorsqu'elles se rapprochent de la Terre, et plus lentement lorsqu'elles s'en éloignent.</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="465" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="138" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-size:14pt">	La théorie des équants : Soit F le centre du cercle déférent, et E la Terre. Le point équant D est le symétrique de E par rapport à F. Vu du point équant, le centre C de l'épicycle d'une planète se déplace de façon uniforme. Cette théorie permet d'obtenir un mouvement circulaire et uniforme. Cependant il s'agit d'un artifice car le mouvement est circulaire par rapport à un point (F) et uniforme par rapport à un autre point (D).</c><c props="font-size:14pt"></c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="580" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:underline; font-size:14pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="581" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:underline; font-size:14pt"></c><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:underline; font-size:14pt">Schéma 1:</c><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:underline; font-size:14pt"></c><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt">                                                                   </c><c props="font-weight:bold; text-decoration:underline; font-size:14pt">Schéma 2:</c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="475" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-weight:bold">Schéma 3 :</c><c props="text-decoration:underline; font-weight:bold"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="476" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><image dataid="c2ee598c-9985-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" title="" alt="" xid="484" props="height:2.7167in; width:2.8813in"/></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="522" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline; text-position:normal; font-weight:bold; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">schéma sur le mouvement apparent de Mars faite en 1984:</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; color:000000; text-decoration:underline; text-position:normal; font-weight:bold; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="520" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><image dataid="37d8fe1e-9986-11e3-9ac6-8109dee0a4cf" xid="517" props="height:2.5465in; width:5.0729in"/></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="519" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt">	</c><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="530" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="531" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="532" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="533" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt">	</c><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="534" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="535" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt">	Le succès de l'Almageste a contribué fortement à imposer le système aristotélicien à l'occident médiéval, ce système s'accordant assez bien avec une vision chrétienne du monde, qui place la Terre et l'Homme au centre de l'univers. Pendant tout le Moyen-Âge, l'étude de la gravitation et de la dynamique avancera peu. Ainsi, pendant treize siècles, le système de Ptolémée ne cessera d'être affiné, augmenté, compliqué, afin d'obtenir des tables astronomiques de plus en plus précises pour répondre aux besoins de la navigation et du calendrier.</c><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="523" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="524" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt">	Il faudra attendre le XVIe siècle avec des hommes de science comme Nicolas Copernic ou encore Galileo Galilei pour changer tout cela, en s’opposant aux instances de l'église. </c><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="552" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="553" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="554" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="555" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-position:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:12pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-weight:normal; font-size:16pt"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="722" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:-none-">La Révolution copernicienne :</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="619" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:26pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="618" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Calibri; font-size:11pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">	</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Nicolas Copernic, astronome polonais du XVIème siècle révolutionne la conception de l’univers. A l’opposé de la théorie de Ptolémée qui elle, était acceptée par tous à son époque, il démontre que l'axe de la Terre n'est pas fixe et que la Lune est un satellite de la Terre. Il était convaincu que la Terre, comme les autres planètes, tournait autour du Soleil et qu’elle tournait sur elle-même après un travail de 36 ans montrant donc sa dévotion. Ses théories furent rejetées par ses contemporains avant d’être  adoptées par tout le monde. </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="620" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="621" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; font-size:12pt; margin-right:0.0000in; text-align:justify"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">		En 1512, Copernic, s'interrogeant sur la théorie de Claude Ptolémée  commença à rédiger son œuvre majeur,  </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:underline ">Révolution des sphères célestes</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">, sur laquelle il travailla pendant 18 ans. Sa théorie astronomique selon laquelle le Soleil est au centre de l’univers, avec la Terre tournant autour de ce dernier. C’est un système que l’on appelle « héliocentrique ».</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="622" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.0000in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Copernic, en se référant des travaux de Ptolémée, en modifiant les paramètres Terre-Soleil, c'est-à-dire que le Soleil se trouvait au centre de l'Univers  et la Terre tournait autour de celui-ci.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="623" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1375in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Sa théorie fut refusée au départ car elle était contre les écritures saintes de l'église, alors qu'il était lui même Chanoine illustrant donc sa réelle croyance en sa théorie et son envie de la montrer.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="624" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1375in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">	De plus, Copernic a étudié en Pologne, où il est grandement influencé par un astronome, qui utilise dans son enseignement un ouvrage de Peurbach, astronome allemand, intitulé Nouvelle théorie des planètes (publié en 1472). L'œuvre de Peurbach, très appréciée à l'époque, est inspirée de la Théorie des planètes, livre d'un auteur inconnu devenu à la mode à partir du XIIe siècle; ce dernier est une synthèse de l'</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Almageste</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">. Par ailleurs, Copernic est plus directement influencé par l'Almageste à travers un ouvrage intitulé Aperçu de l'Almageste, rédigé par Peurbach et Regiomontanus, et la traduction latine complète de l'Almageste de Ptolémée, publiée en 1515. </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="625" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1375in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Au modèle héliocentrique défendu par Nicolas Copernic, perfectionné par Johannes Kepler, Galilée, et Isaac Newton.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="626" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"> Kepler va donner un élan nouveau à l’astronomie. Convaincu de l’hypothèse héliocentrique, il se sert des travaux de son maître Tycho Brahé. Continuant son travail, il découvre que les trajectoires ne décrivent pas une orbite circulaire mais elliptique et attribue au Soleil l’origine de tous les mouvements célestes. Comme il s’appuie sur les observations très précises de Tycho Brahé, il va permettre aux astronomes de s’habituer de plus en plus à l’hypothèse héliocentrique.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="627" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; font-size:14pt; lang:-none-; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; text-decoration:none">Par ailleurs, </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">les </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:bold; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">lois de Kepler </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">décrivent les propriétés principales du mouvement des planètes autour du Soleil. Elles ont été découvertes par Johannes Kepler à partir des observations et mesures de la position des planètes faites par Tycho Brahé ( des mesures qui étaient très précises pour l'époque). Les deux premières lois de Kepler sont publiées en 1609 et la troisième en 1618. Ses deux premières lois, permettent d'expliquer la complexité du mouvement apparent des planètes dans le ciel sans recourir aux épicycles.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="628" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">La deuxième loi s'appuie sur l'équation suivante : M = E - e sin(E). </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="629" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">M étant l'aire parcourue, e étant l'excentricité et E, l'angle au centre de l'ellipse.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="630" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Et la troisième loi de Kepler permet de connaître la distance d'un corps au Soleil.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="631" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">D'ailleurs nous pouvons remarquer que, le carré de la période sidérale P d'une planète, c'est-à-dire le temps entre deux passages successifs devant une étoile lointaine, est équivalent au cube du demi-grand axe a de la trajectoire elliptique de la planète, d'où la formule suivante : </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="632" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">(2</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:13pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR">╥/P)².a^3 = k</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="633" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:13pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:fr-FR"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="634" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:-none-">Kepler a certes créer ses lois, mais Galilée a également démontré plusieurs choses au travers de sa lunette.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="635" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="636" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Tout commence en 1609, quand Galilée construit une longue vue avec des lentilles de très grande qualité. Il s’en sert alors pour regarder le ciel. En 1610, il publie ses résultats, ainsi que leurs conséquences, dans </c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline ; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Le messager des étoiles</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="637" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Galilée va montrer grâce a sa lunette que Jupiter a des satellites mais aussi qu'il y a beaucoup plus d'étoiles que ce qu'on pourrait voir a l'oeil nu.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="638" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Par la suite, il va montrer que la Lune n'est pas aussi parfaite que l'on pourrait dire.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="639" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">En effet, après l'avoir observé pendant l'hiver 1609, il va détruire cette vision en dessinant les cratères multiples et sa surface complètement irrégulière. </c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="640" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c><image dataid="14" xid="642" props="height:1.458333in; width:3.333333in; font-family:Times New Roman"/></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="643" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="644" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"> Croquis de Galilée (les cratères de la lune)</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="645" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="646" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.000000; text-align:justify; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Après toutes ces découvertes, arrive une véritable révolution, qui va aboutir non seulement à la confirmation de l’hypothèse copernicienne, mais surtout, à l’abandon de la distinction entre un monde parfait et imparfait comme nous avons pu le voir dans la première partie, les cosmogonies.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="647" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="648" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">De plus, l'oeuvre de Copernic étant restée sans conséquence, avant Galilée, car elle se présentait que comme une hypothèse, elle est maintenant mise en avant par les autorités religieuses. En effet, l'oeuvre de Copernic est mise en avant car elle a été interprétée de manière réaliste.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="649" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Par la suite, Galilée va montrer que l’espace est homogène. C’est donc une sorte de géométrisation de l’espace. C'est-à-dire que l’espace réel de l’Univers est désormais considéré comme identique à celui de la géométrie euclidienne.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="650" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic; lang:-none-">Par la suite, Newton va achever cette révolution en expliquant ce que Galilée n'avait pas expliqué.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="651" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">En effet, comment se fait-il que les planètes ne tombent pas sur la terre une fois que les sphères ont été enlevées ?</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="652" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Newton y répondra par sa théorie de la gravitation universelle. Il décrira donc la gravitation comme une force qui est responsable de la chute du mouvement des corps célestes par exemple ou plus généralement, de l'attraction entre des corps ayant une masse tels que les planètes.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="653" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="654" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Nous pouvons conclure que la révolution Copernicienne trouve son accomplissement dans la révolution scientifique, qui elle aussi se trouve dans la révolution Copernicienne.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="655" props="margin-top:0.0000in; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; margin-bottom:0.1389in; line-height:1.150000; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; font-family:Times New Roman"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Au final, la révolution Copernicienne n'est pas l'oeuvre de Copernic ni même l'oeuvre d'un homme. Elle désigne plutôt un événement à caractère multiple et assez complexe qui est l'oeuvre de plusieurs scientifiques mais aussi de domaines extra-scientifiques, tels que par exemple le noyau c'est-à-dire la transformation de l'astronomie mathématique, ou encore des conséquences imprévues et révolutionnaires.</c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="686" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="687" props="font-family:Times New Roman; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; margin-left:0.0000in; lang:-none-; font-style:normal; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; margin-top:0.0000in; font-weight:normal; line-height:1.0; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; text-align:left; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:28pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Intro</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="691" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:28pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
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<p style="Text body" xid="705" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="706" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="707" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="708" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="709" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="710" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="711" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="713" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:1.0; margin-bottom:0pt; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; color:000000; font-size:14pt; font-weight:normal; text-align:center"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:underline; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:bold; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">CONCLUSION :</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="714" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="717" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="718" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="719" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Pour conclure, l’avancée scientifique( transmission du savoir grâce à l’</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="715" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-indent:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; font-weight:normal; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-"></c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman; text-decoration:none; color:000000; font-size:14pt; text-position:normal; font-weight:normal; font-style:normal; lang:-none-">Almageste ou encore les écoles, telle que l’école Copernicienne) et technologique ( la lunette de galilée ), a permit de trouver un système proche de celui de la réalité.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="723" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-align:left; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:1.0; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; color:000000; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; font-size:14pt"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman">Cette histoire des représentations nous montre l'évolution à la fois des connaissances et des mentalité</c><c props="font-family:Times New Roman"></c>s concernant l'univers. Le XXe siècle, a largement complexifié ces représentations. Le Grand Feu des premières théories est maintenant loin derrière nous. Mais qu'en est-il de l'attraction universelle ?</p>
<p style="Text body" xid="724" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; font-size:14pt; text-decoration:none; margin-bottom:0pt; line-height:1.0; text-align:left"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="725" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-align:left; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:1.0; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; color:000000; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; font-size:14pt"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman">Albert Einstein (avec la théorie de la relativité) et Niels Bohr (avec les postulats quantiques) ont apporté à la physique et à l'astrophysique en particulier, si ce n'est un grand bol d'air, un énorme point d'interrogation. Et depuis les théories se sont succédées dans une sorte de perspective quasi-inflationniste. De la théorie de l'univers stationnaire qui proposait un univers sans commencement et sans fin, à la théorie de l'univers replié, en passant par la théorie de la supersymétrie qui postule l'existence de "photinos" (particule massive – entre cinquante et mille fois celle du proton – n'interagissant que très faiblement avec la matière), la théorie des cordes ou des singularités – monstre singulier qui enchevêtre inexorablement passé et futur, sorte de cour des miracles pour les esprits religieux –, la théorie des supercordes…, de l'univers ouvert à l'univers fermé, les astro-physiciens se sont efforcés de décortiquer "l'inconnu", et ce pas toujours de manière argumentée d'ailleurs aux yeux du simple citoyen.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="696" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-align:left; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-position:normal; line-height:1.0; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; color:000000; margin-bottom:0pt; font-weight:normal; font-size:14pt"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="697" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-align:left; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:1.0; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman">Avec des termes comme l'anti-matière, l'anti-monde, les trous de vers qui permettraient de "communiquer" avec des univers connexes plus petits (des Bébés-univers) et de voyager dans le temps, c’est presque de la science-fiction. À ce stade, l’imagination prend facilement le relais.</c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="698" props="font-weight:normal; font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-align:left; dom-dir:ltr; color:000000; text-indent:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; text-decoration:none; font-size:14pt; line-height:1.0; text-position:normal"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman"></c></p>
<p style="Text body" xid="699" props="font-family:Times New Roman; margin-top:0.0000in; font-style:normal; margin-left:0.0000in; text-position:normal; dom-dir:ltr; text-decoration:none; text-indent:0.0000in; text-align:left; line-height:1.0; lang:-none-; margin-right:0.0000in; margin-bottom:0pt; color:000000; font-weight:normal; font-size:14pt"><c props="font-family:Times New Roman">L'univers a-t-il des frontières ? Est-il fini ou infini ?</c></p>
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